Pharmaceuticals has developed many drugs that are aimed at treating bacterial infections. And one of the most famous and effective drugs of the class of antibiotics is Amoxil (Amoxicillin). The medicine is used for various diseases, when it is necessary to eliminate the harmful microflora that causes them.
Amoxicillin was developed in the early 70's. It is an antibacterial drug from the class of penicillins, related to semisynthetic antibiotics. Amoxicillin is closest to ampicillin, but differs from it by the presence of a hydroxyl group. This makes the drug more bioavailable for oral (not intravenous) admission.
Also, amoxicillin is more resistant to the action of gastric juice than ampicillin, which causes its better absorption from the gastrointestinal tract and high bioavailability.
After taking this type of penicillin, it penetrates into all tissues and body fluids, which causes its high therapeutic effect. There is also a direct relationship between the dose and the concentration of the substance in the body, that is, an increase in the dose twice entails an increase in the concentration of the substance twofold. At 50-70% Amoxicillin is excreted by the kidneys, only a small part of the drug is excreted through the liver.
The drug refers to antibacterial bactericides. The principle of action of amoxicillin is based on the effect on certain enzymes, which the cell walls of bacteria are composed of. Without these enzymes, cell walls are destroyed, and bacteria die. Amoxicillin is active against various types of microorganisms, both gram-positive and gram-negative. However, its action is far from universal, since there are microorganisms resistant to the action of amoxicillin. In particular, these are bacteria that can produce beta-lactamase, which neutralizes the antibiotic. Therefore, amoxicillin is often released in combination with clavulanic acid, which protects amoxicillin from the action of beta-lactamase.
The drug may have certain side effects that you should take into account before intake:
• Allergic reactions: hives are possible, skin hyperemia, erythematous rashes, angioedema, rhinitis, conjunctivitis; rarely - fever, arthralgia, eosinophilia, exfoliative dermatitis, multiform exudative erythema (including Stevens-Johnson syndrome); reactions similar to serum sickness; in isolated cases - anaphylactic shock.
• On the part of the digestive system: a change in taste, nausea, vomiting, stomatitis, glossitis, dysbiosis, diarrhea, pain in the anus, rarely - pseudomembranous enterocolitis.
• From the liver and biliary tract: a moderate increase in the activity of "liver" transaminases, rarely - hepatitis and cholestatic jaundice.
• From the side of the nervous system (with prolonged use in high doses): excitation, anxiety, insomnia, ataxia, confusion, behavior change, depression, peripheral neuropathy, headache, dizziness, convulsions.
• Laboratory changes: leukopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenic purpura, transient anemia.
• Other effects: shortness of breath, tachycardia, interstitial nephritis, joint pain, candidiasis of the oral cavity and vagina, superinfection (especially in patients with chronic diseases or reduced resistance of the body).
Amoxicillin 500 mg is a Semisynthetic penicillin, which has a bactericidal action. It has a wide spectrum of action. It inhibits transpeptidase, breaks the synthesis of peptidoglycan in the period of division and growth, causes bacterial lysis. It is active against gram-positive and gram-negative cocci, some gram-negative rods.
Effects on Staphylococcus spp., except strains producing penicillinase, Streptococcus spp., Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria meningitidis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, some strains of Salmonella, Shigella Klebsiella and Haemophilus influenzae. In combination with metronidazole, it shows activity against Helicobacter pylori. It is destroyed by β-lactamases, therefore, β-lactamase-producing microorganisms are resistant to the action of amoxicillin 500 mg.
When ingested, it is absorbed quickly and almost completely (93%). The main substance is stable in an acidic environment, eating does not affect absorption. The maximum concentration in blood plasma (3.5-5 mg / ml) is created 1-2 hours after oral administration of 0.25 g of amoxicillin. Penetrates into most tissues and organs.
It accumulates in therapeutic concentrations in peritoneal fluid, urine, contents of skin blisters, pleural effusion, lungs (but not in purulent bronchial secretion), intestinal mucosa, female genital organs, middle ear fluid, gall bladder and bile (with normal liver function), tissues of the fetus.
It easily passes the histohematological barriers (with the exception of the unchanged blood-brain barrier). With inflammation of the meninges, the concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid is about 20% of the plasma level. The half-life period corresponds to 1-1.5 hours, if the renal function is impaired, the half-life period is extended to 4-12.6 hours. It is partially metabolized with the formation of inactive metabolites. It is excreted by the kidneys in unchanged form (50-70%) and with bile (10-20%). In small amounts, it is excreted in breast milk.
Amoxicillin 500 mg reduces the effectiveness of estrogen-containing oral contraceptives, drugs, in the process of metabolism of which forms para-aminobenzoic acid, ethinyl estradiol - the risk of bleeding "breakthrough".
The drug reduces clearance and increases the toxicity of methotrexate, increases the absorption of digoxin, the effectiveness of indirect anticoagulants (suppressing the intestinal microflora, reduces the synthesis of vitamin K and prothrombin index). Monitoring prothrombin time should be carried out with simultaneous appointment with anticoagulants.
Antacids, glucosamine, laxatives slow down and reduce, and ascorbic acid increases absorption. Excretion is slowed by probenecid, allopurinol, sulfinpyrazone, acetylsalicylic acid, indomethacin, oxyphenbutazone, phenylbutazone and other drugs that inhibit tubular secretion.
Antibacterial activity decreases with simultaneous use with bacteriostatic chemotherapeutic agents, increases - when combined with aminoglycosides and metronidazole. There is a complete cross-resistance of ampicillin and amoxicillin.
Amoxicilin should be taken in case of the following diseases: infectious-inflammatory diseases caused by sensitive microorganisms, including bronchitis, pneumonia, angina, acute otitis media, pharyngitis, sinusitis, urethritis, cystitis, pyelonephritis, endometritis, uncomplicated gonorrhea, skin and soft tissue infections, gastrointestinal tract (peritonitis, enteritis, cholecystitis, cholangitis), leptospirosis, listeriosis, borreliosis, meningitis, prophylaxis of bacteremia, bacterial endocarditis associated with surgical manipulations (in particular dental), in patients at risk of bacterial development endocarditis; combined therapy of peptic ulcer of the stomach and duodenum associated with Helicobacter pylori (in combination with metronidazole or clarithromycin and antisecretory drugs), sepsis (together with aminoglycosides); treatment and prevention of anthrax.
Amoxicillin has certain contraindications. The main contraindications include:
• age up to 3 years,
• the first trimester of pregnancy,
• intolerance of amoxicillin and other penicillins,
• severe form of kidney failure,
• severe digestive system disorders,
• Infectious mononucleosis,
• lymphocytic leukemia,
• bronchial asthma,
• antibiotic-associated colitis in the anamnesis.
When combined with amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, these contraindications are accompanied by severe liver disease. The minimum age, at which amoxicillin can be used, according to the manufacturer's recommendation, is 3 years old, in practice, however, pediatricians use amoxicillin for the treatment of toddlers of younger age as well.
Suspension contains sucrose, this should be taken into account for people with diabetes. It should be understood that amoxicillin, like any antibiotic, is intended to treat only bacterial infections, and in the case of viral infections - influenza, herpes, its use will not only be meaningless, but can also be harmful.
Treatment should continue for another 48-72 hours after the disappearance of clinical signs of the disease. With the simultaneous use of estrogen-containing oral contraceptives and amoxicillin, additional contraceptive methods should be used whenever possible. In patients with severe impairment of renal function, a dose reduction may be required.
Dose adjustments in elderly patients are not required. However, elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, so caution should be exercised in choosing a dose and controlling kidney function because of the potential risk of developing toxic reactions.
Application during pregnancy and lactation: Data on the possible embryotoxic, teratogenic or mutagenic effects of amoxicillin during admission during pregnancy are not available today. When a woman is pregnant, she can be prescribed the drug if it is necessary for life indications, taking into account the expected effect for the mother and the potential risk to the fetus. The use of amoxicillin during lactation is contraindicated (it is necessary to stop breastfeeding for the duration of treatment).
Amoxicillin penetrates into breast milk, which can lead to the development of sensitization in the child.
It is intended to be used for oral administration, a single dose for adults and children older than 10 years (with a body weight of more than 40 kg) is 250-500 mg, with a severe course of the disease - up to 1 g. For children aged 5-10 years, a single dose is 250 mg; at the age from 2 to 5 - 125 mg; for children under 2 years of age, the daily dose is 20 mg / kg.
For adults and children, the interval between doses is 8 hours. In the treatment of acute uncomplicated gonorrhea - 3 g once (in combination with probenecid). In patients with impaired renal function with KK 10-40 ml / min, the interval between doses should be increased to 12 h; with QC less than 10 ml / min, the interval between doses should be 24 hours.
It is very convenient to buy Amoxil 250/500 mg at an online pharmacy. You should enter the site, choose the necessary drug dosage either 250 or 500 mg, fill out an order form online and submit it. You will benefit from the fast delivery, which may be even free if to place an order, which cost exceeds the certain sum. You can buy Amoxil over the counter online.
All the manipulations on the selection of medicines and the formation of the purchase can be performed from your home, without getting up from the screen of a personal computer, laptop or smartphone. To place an order, you should click on the shopping cart icon under the pharmacy logo, or on the "Checkout" button before sending the last item to the shopping cart.
In order to place an order, you must enter your name, contact phone number.
However, it is recommended to consult your healthcare specialist before taking the drug. You have a great opportunity to check the instructions, read the contraindications carefully before placing an order. You are welcome to ask any questions when making a purchase at an online drugstore.
If you need to get Amoxil quickly, you can get it by placing an order online within several minutes.